WHITE CELL COUNT + DIFF
Blood differential, White blood cell differential count, Differential Blood Count, Diff, WBC Count Differential, Leukocyte differential count, Complete blood count (CBC) with differential
What is a WBC differential test?
A WBC differential
measures the quantity of each type of white blood cell (WBC) in your body. WBC, also known as leukocytes, are present in your immune system, a group of cells, tissues, and other organs. WBCs are cells that flow in the blood. They allow your body to save you from infection, bacteria, inflammation, allergies, and other diseases.
What is the purpose of a blood differential test?
A WBC differential is a part of the routine blood test. As the five types of WBCs perform the unique activity, your provider measures them to get detailed information about your medical conditions. The differential test evaluates
- The presence of each type of WBCs in a recommended amount
- The quantity of different normal cells either it is increased or decreased
- The abnormality in WBCs
The blood differential
test helps to diagnose disorders, including leukemia, infection, autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases, and other types of cancer.
What are the types of White blood cells?
A blood differential test indicates the number of different categories of WBCs
in your blood sample. There are five kinds of white blood cells (WBCs) available in your blood, such as
- Lymphocytes – They contain B cells and T cells. These are the two significant types of WBCs. B cells help to fight against infection, bacteria, viruses, or toxins. T cells help for destroying the body cells, such as cancer cells and the cells affected by viruses.
- Neutrophils – It is the most familiar type of white blood cell. They become active against infection due to the entry of bacteria, germs, or other viruses into your body.
- Monocytes – It protects you from fever and sick by killing bacteria, viruses, and other germs. They help to charge the response of your body's immune system. Monocytes also eliminate the dead cells from your body.
When do I need a WBC differential test?
- Eosinophils – They help to defend your immune system against allergies and inflammation.
- Basophils – They excrete enzymes during an asthma attack and allergic reactions.
When you visit for a routine medical checkup, your provider recommends the WBC differential
. This test diagnoses several medical conditions and monitors the existing blood disorder. A blood differential is a part of the CBC test
. Besides, your provider conducts this test when you have these signs and symptoms of an infection or inflammation.
- Pain or body aches
- Unusual tiredness or weakness
- Other symptoms depend on the type of infection or inflammation
Your healthcare provider may suggest the test if you have the above symptoms and if they are related to bone marrow disorder, autoimmune disease, or other immune disorders. Your provider may also ask you to conduct the differential if the CBC results lie outside the reference ranges.
How can I get a WBC Differential test?
A WBC differential generally performs with CBC to observe the different types of cells. It uses to monitor and diagnoses the various conditions that can affect your quantity of WBCs. You can order the test online
. Your doctor may order differential tests regularly to observe the WBC disease.
What happens during a blood differential test?
Your provider needs a blood sample for a WBC differential
. You have to tie a stretchable band around your upper arm. A professional provider will insert a needle into the vein of your arm. Blood will collect in a test tube. Your provider applies a bandage and asks you to put a little pressure on the needle spot to stop bleeding. The test procedure generally takes at least five minutes. You can return to your home for normal daily activities.
How to prepare for the test?
You do not have to prepare for the WBC differential
. When your provider asks you for additional blood tests with this test, you may need to keep fast for several hours before the test.
Is there any risk to the test?
A blood differential has no side effects or risks to your health. You may feel temporary pain when your provider inserts the needle into your vein.
What do the WBC differential test results mean?
It takes a few days after your provider collects a blood sample. You can receive your test report from an online health portal or in the mail. You can also make an online appointment with the doctor
about your test results.
The results of a WBC differential
discuss as the absolute values or percentage of the total amount of WBCs. Your lab care will multiply the total quantity of WBCs by the percentage of each kind of white blood cell to get the absolute values.
For conclusions of the results, your provider also puts various factors, such as symptoms, medical history, high or low WBCs, etc.
Following are the recommended percentages for different types of white blood cells:
- Lymphocytes: 20 to 40
- Neutrophils: 40 to 60
- Monocytes: 2 to 8
- Eosinophils: 1 to 4
- Basophils: 0.5 to 1
If your test results lie outside the reference range, you may have a disease or disorder in WBCs. A high white blood cell
count can indicate an infection, an immune disorder, an allergic reaction, or leukemia. Low WBCs
may show bone marrow diseases, cancer, or side effects of medicines.
Abnormal results don't always show that you have a medical disease that needs treatment. Several factors can lead to an increase or decrease in each type of white blood cell. The factors that may affect the test results include diet, alcohol, specific medicines, exercise, and menstrual period for women. Your healthcare provider will order more tests to determine a reason if a consistent rise or fall occurs in your WBCs.
What else do I need to know about a WBC differential test?
The high value of WBCs in your test results may also occur due to the use of specific steroids.
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