Total Protein and Albumin
What are the other names for this test?
Albumin/globulin ratio, Total serum protein, TP albumin/globulin ratio, Total Protein And Albumin/Globulin Ratio test
What is the total protein and albumin/globulin ratio test?
This test helps to determine the amount of total protein in your blood. The Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin Ratio test gives the ratio of albumin to globulin in your blood, known as the A/G ratio. This test measures the total protein in your body and the albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio to look for kidney and liver problems. If you have abnormal total protein levels or albumin/globulin ratio, it can indicate severe health problems in your body. Protein is the substance to operate different functions in your body. Your liver develops proteins.
Albumin and globulins are two major types of proteins.
Albumin - This protein stops the blood from coming out of the blood vessels. This protein carries hormones, vitamins, medicines, and other elements in your body. It produces by your liver.
Globulins - This protein resists infection and bacteria. This protein helps to flow nutrients throughout your body. Some globulins produce by your liver. Your immune system also develops other globulins.
What is the purpose of this test?
A total protein and albumin/globulin ratio test is the way to screen, diagnose, and monitor your health conditions. This test may also conduct with a liver panel or comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP). Albumin and globulin have their roles in the different processes of your body.
When do I need to take this test?
This test may include a part of a comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP), a general routine test. Your healthcare provider recommends the total protein and albumin/globulin ratio test if you experience liver or kidney disease. The common symptoms include:
- Nausea and vomiting
- Deposition of fluid in the belly that leads to pain and swelling.
- Deposition of fluid in the legs, ankles, or feet.
- Losing weight without any effort.
- Skin and eye color turn yellow, a jaundice condition.
- Loss of appetite
- Passing urine with blood (a sign of kidney disease)
A total protein and albumin/globulin ratio test will help your provider to detect nephrotic syndrome, a kidney disease. This condition may also develop due to diabetes in adults. Nephrotic syndrome is the most common kidney disease that shows a loss of large amounts of protein in your urine. Its symptoms include swelling around your eyes, legs, and arms. Schedule an online test to get reports of your health conditions.
What is the procedure for this test?
A total protein and albumin/globulin ratio test is a blood test that takes at least 5 minutes.
- Your healthcare provider will collect a blood sample from your vein.
- A needle will inject into a vein in your arm to collect a blood sample into a test tube.
- Your blood sample will store in the laboratory for examination.
- A bandage will apply to cover the vein where the needle injects. After performing this test, the daily activities can then resume by a person.
How do I get ready for this test?
You do not need special preparation for the total protein and albumin/globulin ratio test. You can inform your provider about supplements, vitamins, and medicines you usually take.
What are the risks of this test?
This test is a blood test. You may feel slight pain when the needle injects into your vein to collect your blood sample. You may also have some bleeding, bruising, or infection. These symptoms disappear after some time.
What do the test results indicate?
A total protein and albumin/globulin ratio test can have low or high protein levels. You may also have enough protein levels in your body. The recommended range for total protein is 60 to 80 grams per liter (g/L). A recommended range of albumin is 35 to 52 g/L.
This test will also indicate whether you have a high or low albumin-to-globulin (A/G) ratio.
Low total protein levels may indicate the presence of these conditions that include:
- Kidney disease
- Malnutrition - A disease in which a person loses the ability to receive vitamins, calories, and minerals for better health).
- Liver disease
- Malabsorption syndrome -A condition in which your small intestine cannot absorb nutrients from food. It includes celiac disease and Crohn’s disease).
High total protein levels may indicate any of these conditions that include:
- Multiple myeloma, which is a form of blood cancer.
- An infection including HIV or hepatitis.
A low A/G ratio may occur due to
- Kidney disease
- Liver disease such as cirrhosis (end stage of the damaged liver)
- An autoimmune disease, including lupus (a condition in which your immune system fights with its tissues and organs).
A high A/G ratio may be a sign of
- Leukemia (a cancer disease of blood cells).
- Specific types of genetic disorders.
You can discuss your total protein and albumin/globulin ratio test results through an online meeting with a consultant.
What are the factors that may affect the test results?
Many factors can decrease your protein level. When you don’t drink enough water, you experience dehydration. It is one of the causes of higher albumin levels. Long-period bed rest may also decrease your albumin levels.
What additional tests may I need to take along with this test?
Your provider may ask for additional tests by observing your previous abnormal test results and your health conditions. Your provider may recommend conducting an individual blood test for albumin and globulins. The globulin blood test helps to measure four different types of globulins in your blood.
Low albumin levels may show symptoms of liver disease, kidney disease, malnutrition, and thyroid disease. High albumin levels occur due to dehydration and diarrhea (loose, watery, and increased bowel movements).
Low globulin levels may show symptoms of liver disease and kidney disease.
High globulin levels occur due to
- Specific types of blood cancer, such as leukemia or multiple myeloma
- Tuberculosis (a bacterial infection that transfers through sneezes of an infected person).
- An autoimmune disease, such as lupus
- Hemolytic anemia (a condition in which red blood cells break faster compared to their production).
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