Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)
What is a Comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP)?
A comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) is a test used to determine the overall health conditions of a person. A CMP test helps assess the metabolism and chemicals in the body. It is a significant test for screening and diagnosing many diseases, such as kidney, liver, diabetes, or high blood pressure. Your doctor may recommend the test when you are dealing with muscle weakness, muscle aches, or when the color of your urine is dark. You may also order this test if you are using specific medicines that show side effects on your health.
What are the components of the CMP test?
A CMP test is a sequence of tests that measure 14 different substances in your body. These include
- Glucose – It is a significant source of energy for your body. Glucose is a type of blood sugar. Its high level may lead to diabetes.
- Calcium – An essential mineral for the development of bones and teeth. Large quantities of calcium deposit in your bones, but your blood needs it too. Calcium helps regulate the nerves, heart, and muscles. It utilizes for blood clotting.
Four liver components are part of a CMP test, in which three of them are enzymes.
- Alanine aminotransferase (ALP, SGPT)
- Alkane phosphate (ALP)
- Aspartate aminotransferase (ATI, SGOT)
The above three enzymes are present in the liver, kidney, and heart. Enzymes are substances that work as a catalyst and help in the function of metabolism.
- Bilirubin – It is a waste chemical produced due to the decomposition of red blood cells in the liver. Your liver removes the bilirubin from your body.
A comprehensive metabolic panel test also determines the levels of electrolytes in your blood. Electrolytes are minerals found in the blood as dissolved salts and are responsible for converting nutrients to cells. They also eliminate waste from the body and maintain the acid-base balance (pH balance). Here are four electrolyte components as follows:
- Sodium – Sodium maintains the body's function, specifically for nerves and muscles. People generally intake sodium from the food they eat. Your kidneys are responsible for maintaining the sodium levels in your body.
- Potassium – It transfers signals from the nerve to the muscles. Potassium plays a vital role in the metabolism of cells. It also comes from the food you eat.
- Bicarbonate – It controls the pH level of your body and shows the amount of carbon dioxide in your blood.
- Chloride – It balances the acid-base level in the body. A chloride regulates the amount of fluid throughout the body.
- Albumin – It is a protein in your blood made by your liver. It carries enzymes, nutrients, and other substances in your bloodstream. It also helps to resist fluid from leaking from the blood vessels.
- Total protein – This test measures other proteins (globulins) besides albumin.
Two kidney tests, such as:
- Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) – This component specifies the quantities of urea nitrogen level in blood. Blood urea nitrogen is a waste material your kidneys remove from your blood.
- Creatinine – It is a waste product produced by creatinine. It develops during the regular activity of the muscles. A creatinine test indicates the function of the kidney.
What is the purpose of the CMP test?
Your provider may order a comprehensive metabolic panel test, a part of a routine blood test. This test provides complete information about the functions of the body and its working conditions. A CMP test determines following
- Acid-base balance in your body
- Electrolytes and fluid balance
- Blood sugar level
- Liver and kidney
- Blood protein level
When do I need a CMP test?
A comprehensive metabolic panel test is a routine checkup for a person. It can help to screen and diagnose various diseases before or after they happen. If you have symptoms of liver, kidney, heart, or muscle problems, your doctor recommends this test.
How to prepare for the test?
You may need to keep fast for at least 8 to 10 hours and can only drink water during this time. Your healthcare provider may instruct you to follow specific instructions if needed.
What happens during a comprehensive metabolic panel test?
Your healthcare provider will ask you to provide a blood sample. A needle injects into a vein in your arm. A small amount of blood collects in a test tube. Your provider applies a bandage to your vein where the needle injects. CMP blood test does not take time greater than 5 minutes.
What are the risks of the test?
A CMP is a blood test that possesses a low risk. People can experience a slight pain or bruise at the position where the needle goes into their vein. These signs do not stay last for long.
What does a CMP test result mean?
The CMP is a combination of different tests. If one or more test results are unsatisfactory, it could be due to various diseases such as liver, kidney, diabetes, or heart disease. Your healthcare provider will recommend more tests to understand the specific conditions.
Is there anything else I need to know about the CMP test?
Your doctor may suggest this test by observing your symptoms and health conditions. You don't need always have a medical problem if one of your CMP test results is abnormal. Some factors may affect the test, such as the intake of certain medicines, diet, and health conditions.
You can place an online order for a comprehensive metabolic panel test in less time. Visit UmbrellaMD to book your lab test and make an appointment with your doctor. Umbrella Health Care Systems is an online healthcare site that provides services, including laboratory tests, connections with doctors, pharmacies, and medical imaging. You can make an e-consultation by registering yourself here.